The History of Oxycodone

The History of Oxycodone

Oxycodone is a powerful narcotic analgesic. It is the active ingredient in a number of commonly prescribed pain relief medications such as Percocet, Percodan, and Tylox, which are oxycodone plus some sort of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) like aspirin or acetaminophen. Oxycodone is also the active ingredient in OxyContin, a time release, long-acting form of the drug, and Roxicodone, a short acting form of the drug.

Oxycodone, like all drugs in the opiate class, is derived the opium plant. Many similar compounds were sold over the counter in the 19th century. In 1898, Bayer pharmaceuticals released an extremely potent compound known as heroin.

Oxycodone was synthesized from thebaine, which is derived from the opium plant. It was developed in Germany in 1916 as an alternative to heroin, which had been outlawed a couple years prior. It was hoped that oxycodone would have the analgesic (pain-killing) power of heroin without the dependence issues. It was first introduced to American consumers in 1939, but did not become widely used until the release of Percodan (oxycodone plus aspirin) in 1950.

As more people were prescribed oxycodone, its potential for addiction became more widely known.  In 1963, the attorney general of California publicly denounced Percodan abuse as the source of one-third of all drug addictions within the state. As a result, regulation of oxycodone in the United States was increased. In 1970, oxycodone, along with all other opiates, was made a Schedule II drug under the Federal Controlled Substances Act.

In 1974, the FDA approved Percocet (oxycodone plus acetaminophen). It was prescribed in very small quantities. Over the next decade, however, the attitudes towards management of chronic pain began to change. Instead of using painkillers for acute or malignant pain, doctors began to prescribe it for chronic pain. Many of the states adopted new policies that supported the wider use of painkillers by doctors.

In 1995, Purdue pharmaceuticals released OxyContin. Shortly thereafter, Purdue implemented an aggressive marketing campaign. It promoted the use of OxyContin by primary care providers, use in non-cancer pain, and its use as first line therapy for chronic pain. Its marketing was physician directed, and certain promotional claims were even cited in medical journals. Within in two years, OxyContin came to account for 80 percent of all Perdue profits.

As the use of OxyContin became more wide spread, reports of abuse began to increase exponentially. Before the release of OxyContin, all formulations of oxycodone contained an NSAID, which limited its potential for abuse. The NSAID component of the drugs also restricted the routes of administration to oral ingestion. When OxyContin was released, abusers realized that they could crush the pill to release pure oxycodone (up to 80mg in one pill), which allowed larger doses and by additional routes of administrations such as intravenous and intranasal. Due to the widespread abuse, particularly in rural areas, OxyContin came to be known as “Hillbilly Heroin.”

Soon, the lawsuits began. Purdue was accused of disseminating misleading information about OxyContin. In 2001, both the FDA and Purdue issued warnings against the recreational use of the drug. Despite the warnings, OxyContin continued to be one of the most widely abused drugs in the United States.

In 2011, to try to curb abuse of the drug, manufacturers added additional binders to the formulation to prevent the grinding of tablets for insufflation or injection, and to maintain OxyContin’s extended release characteristics. The added binders greatly reduced the recreational value of OxyContin, because they were not easily broken down.

http://www.ehow.com/about_5397213_history-oxycodone.html

http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/AnestheticAndLifeSupportDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM248776.pdf

 

Narcotic Fact Sheet

Narcotic Fact Sheet

Prescription opioids are some of the most commonly abused substances in America. These opioids work by binding with opioid receptors in the brain. They bind to the same receptors that the bodies’ natural painkillers bind to. After prolonged opiate use, the body stops producing natural painkillers, resulting in opiate dependency. Opiates are such powerful narcotics that the body can become dependent on them even when they prescribed by a physician for the treatment of pain and are taken in the prescribed dosage.

Narcotic Fact Sheet: Vicodin, Lortab, and Lorcet

Vicodin, Lortab, and Lorcet are all brand names for the combination drug containing hydrocodone and acetaminophen. Hydrocodone is a semi-synthetic opiate. Usually, it is combined with non-opioid painkillers like acetaminophen to discourage recreational use and to increase the painkilling effects.  Hydrocodone is also a cough suppressant, so it is used in many prescription cough medications.

While additives such as acetaminophen are added to hydrocodone products in part to discourage illicit use, the danger is that people who do abuse hydrocodone products may not be aware that they are taking high levels of acetaminophen. This can be very dangerous, and in many cases, long term hydrocodone abuse can cause liver problems because these drugs are toxic in high doses, and can even be fatal.

Another reason that hydrocodone is less likely to be abused than drugs like pure oxycodone, is that the metabolism of hydrocodone prevents it from alternate routes of administration like snorting and injection. This is because the main painkilling effect of hydrocodone use comes from its conversion to the much stronger opioid hydromorphone in the liver. When the drug is snorted or injected, it bypasses this metabolic process, so it actually results in a less strong effect. Also, because hydrocodone users must separate the hydrocodone from the acetaminophen additives before injecting it, some of the hydrocodone is lost in the process. Hydrocodone is also only about half as strong as oral oxycodone.

Narcotic Fact Sheet: Percocet

Percocet is the brand name of the combination drug containing oxycodone and acetaminophen. As with the hydrocodone combination products, acetaminophen is added to oxycodone to both potentiate the painkilling effects and to discourage abuse. Percocet comes in doses of 10/325 (10 mg of oxycodone and 325 mg of acetaminophen) or 5/325 (5mg of oxycodone and 325 mg of acetaminophen).Percocet is an oral medication.

Oxycodone is a powerful analgesic synthesized from thebaine, which is derived from the opium plant. It was developed in Germany in 1916 as an alternative to heroin, which had been outlawed a couple years prior. It was hoped that oxycodone would have the analgesic (pain-killing) power of heroin without the dependence issues. However, since its inception, oxycodone has been subject to abuse.

Narcotic Fact Sheet: Roxicodone

Roxicodone is the brand name of a drug that contains pure oxycodone; it does not contain ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or aspirin, like other oxycodone-containing products (i.e. Percodan, Percocet, and Tylox).Roxicodone pills generally come in 15 or 30 mg doses. It is an immediate release form of oxycodone, unlike the time-release form of the drug: OxyContin. Because it is pure immediate release, pure oxycodone, the potential for abuse of oxycodone is very high.

Oxycodone Fact Sheet

Oxycodone Fact Sheet

The FDA has warned of a prescription drug epidemic within the United States. It’s important to know as much as possible about the most commonly abuse prescription drugs. Oxycodone is a schedule II controlled substance that treats moderate to severe pain. It’s abuse is nationwide, here’s a oxycodone fact sheet for your edification:

  • Oxycodone. The trade names of Oxycodone are Tylox, Perocdan and Oxycontin, Percocet, Endocet, and Roxicet.
  • Oxycodone is used for moderate pain control, chronic pain, and for the treatment of pain due to terminal cancer.
  • Oxycodone is manufactured from thebaine.
  • Oxycodone works by affecting the central nervous system’s response to pain.
  • Oxycodone can cause headaches, constipation, nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, and weakness.
  • 5mg of oxycodone is equal to 30mg of codeine when taken orally.
  • Oxycodone and morphine are equal when it comes to pain control for the general population. 10mg of oxycodone taken orally is the exact equivalent of 10mg of morphine administered under the skin. Oxycodone is considered to be like morphine and despite its commonality with codeine is more like morphine in its rate of dependence.
  • Oxycodone abuse has been a problem in the United States since the early 1960s. The abuse caused pill companies to make a new form of oxycodone which you know today s Oxycontin.
  • Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid. This means that it is structured like codeine and is equal to morphine in its effects.
  • The first reports of oxycodone’s euphoric effects came from the oxycodone brand Eukodal and was said to produce a “striking euphoria” and abuse symptoms began to be published in Germany in the 1920s.
  • Oxycodone is abused for its morphine like effects.
  • Oxycodone’s effects can last for up to 5 hours.
  • Oxycodone can last longer than 5 hours if it is the sustained-release formula.
  • The adverse effects of oxycodone abuse are the dependence upon the drug and the development of a tolerance or need to use more.
  • Oxycodone can be abused orally, nasally, or intravenously. It is prescribed to be taken orally but it does come in tablet, capsule and liquid forms.
  • Oxycodone comes in a variety of colors, markings and packaging.
  • The major source of oxycodone to the street has been through forged prescriptions, unregulated pharmacists, doctors, and dentists, “doctor shopping” by opiate addicts and large-scale thefts.
  • Oxycodone sells for .50 to 1.00 per milligram on the street. This means that a 30mg oxycodone pill will sells for 30 dollars on the street.
  • Oxycodone comes in doses of 160mg tablets now.
  • The street name for oxycodone is usually OC, OXY, Oxycotton, killers, Percs, and Percodoms.
  • Oxycodone comes in tablet forms of 10,20,40,80 and 160mg.
  • Painkillers such as oxycodone are ranked second behind marijuana in prevalencey of illegal drug use.
  • Oxycodone is the most abused narcotic in the country.
  • In 2010 pharmacies in the USA ordered more than 3.1 billion doses of oxycodone. Out of those doses 421 million of them were purchased by the state of Florida. That is more than 23 states combined.
  • A pharmacy in FL purchased 2.3 million doses of oxycodone in 2010 making it the #1 pharmacy in the state.

Sources:

http://www.ehow.com/facts_7425399_interesting-drug-oxycodone.html

http://www.mckytonlaw.com/blog/2011/09/20/some-facts-about-oxycodone-in-florida/

http://www.patmoorefoundation.com/oxycontin-oxycodone-facts-about-usage-abuse-addiction-and-treatment

 

 

Can you snort Percocet?

Can you snort Percocet?
Can you snort Percocet?

Can you snort Percocet?

Percocet is a narcotic pain medication. It is oxycodone (an opioid) and acetaminophen (Tylenol). Percocet comes in doses of 10/325 (10 mg of oxycodone and 325 mg of acetaminophen) or 5/325 (5mg of oxycodone and 325 mg of acetaminophen).Percocet is an oral medication. People want to know if you can snort Percocet when they are using it illicitly.

Different routes of administration (e.g. swallowing, snorting, injecting) result in different bioavailability for different drugs. Bioavailability of drugs refers to the amount of drug that actually reaches systemic circulation unchanged or in its active form. People who want to snort Percocet often do so in the hopes that the bioavailability (and thus the effect) of Percocet will be stronger.

In general, nasal insufflation (snorting) causes a faster onset then other routes of administration, and the bioavailability of drugs is usually (but not always) higher than oral administration. This bioavailability occurs due to the quick absorption of the drug into the bloodstream through the soft tissue in the sinus cavity. Nasal absorption of oxycodone is not great, so the bioavailability of oxycodone is actually higher if you swallow it than if you snort it. Oxycodone does, however, have a faster onset if you snort it.

However, Percocet is not pure oxycodone. It also contains acetaminophen. This causes a problem in two ways. When you snort Percocet, the acetaminophen often coats the inside of the nose, and it doesn’t allow the oxycodone to be absorbed through the nasal cavity. Remember, a pill of Percocet is mostly acetaminophen. The nose can only absorb so much powder. So you often lose the advantage of insufflation (in this case, a faster onset) if you snort Percocet.

The second problem when you snort Percocet is that acetaminophen can be very damaging to the nasal passages. It burns when you snort it and it is caustic to the delicate tissue that lines the nose. Not only does this cause pain, and over time it causes damage and erosion, it can also prevent the oxycodone from being absorbed through the nasal passages. Acetaminophen constricts blood vessels, so they are less absorptive.

If you do decide to snort Percocet, despite the fact that it is not the ideal drug for snorting, do not share snorting instruments. Sharing a tube or straw between two people can spread diseases like Hepatitis C.

Also note that when you snort Percocet, it is a form of abuse, and abuse can quickly lead to dependence and addiction with opioids like oxycodone. Opioids are a highly addictive class of drugs. Once your body becomes dependent, withdrawal can be excruciating.

If you snort or swallow Percocet (or take it in any other way) do not take it with alcohol or other CNS depressants. Opioids like Percocet cause depressed respiration, and when you take it with other depressants (Like benzos, alcohol, sedatives, or barbiturates), you potentiate this effect, and it can very easily lead to coma and possibly death. Overdose due to prescription drugs is very common, and opioids are almost always involved.

Snorting Roxies

Roxy is the street name or shortened version of the opiate Roxicet. Roxicet is a member of the oxycodone family. Roxicet is the same drug as Percocet but is just another brand available.

Roxies come in pill form and can be crushed and snorted to achieve a quicker effect. Snorting roxies can make the effect come on quicker although the effects may not last as long. The biggest positive effect that causes people to want to use roxies is the intense euphoria or feeling of numbness that opiates provide.

The effects of roxies when snorted are but are not limited to constipation, drowsiness, dizziness, vomiting, itching, nausea, etc., while other side effects could be headaches, weakness, sweating, dry mouth, etc.

Adverse side effects include:

  • Unsteadiness
  • Confusion
  • Severe constipation
  • Severe drowsiness
  • Irregular breathing
  • Seizures
  • Mood change and abnormal behavior
  • Allergic reactions like hives
  • Breathing difficulty

When snorting roxies these effects can be more severe. Snorting roxies does serious damage to your lungs and nose. Snorting roxies can eventually lead to the disintegration of the septum and lead to particles of pill being inhaled into the lungs.

Most people end up snorting roxies because they want to achieve a more intense effect of euphoria that roxy already provides. Snorting roxies can easily lead to complications that can be as severe as overdose and death. Snorting roxies can easily turn into a roxy addiction also and when addicted to roxies it can be very hard to stop.

Since Roxy is closely related to heroin, the reaction is the same in the body, which means Roxy is also equally addictive as heroin. With snorting roxies frequently, the tolerance level increases and later the amount of Roxy required to create the same pleasure level becomes more. This eventually leads to addiction to the drug. After snorting roxies it can be hard for someone to stop on their own especially because when they do stop snorting roxies they will begin to experience roxy withdrawal symptoms. Roxy withdrawal symptoms are extremely unpleasant and most of the time the user will choose to begin snorting roxies again instead of continuing to stay abstinent.

Roxy withdrawal symptoms include:

  • Restlessness
  • Backaches
  • Joint pain
  • Weakness
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Chills
  • Sweating
  • High blood pressure
  • Muscle pain
  • Runny nose
  • Dilated pupils

Once someone who experiences addiction to snorting roxies tries to stop and has withdrawal symptoms it may be time for some outside help to their addiction. Snorting roxies can be very hard to stop on their own. In fact if you are snorting roxies chances are that you already need outside help because taking medication recreationally in a way not prescribed is a sign of drug abuse. Drug abuse and addiction are closely linked and most of the times treatment is need to address the addiction. Trying to stop snorting roxies on your own can be a bad idea even though the withdrawal from roxies is not fatal.

If you are snorting roxies and need help it is a good idea to seek treatment because of the damage and dangerousness of the method and drug combined.

Is Roxy an Anti-inflammatory?

Is Roxy an Anti-inflammatory?
                                      
 
The short answer to this question is no, roxy is not an anti-inflammatory. But it’s not that simple. Roxy is the street name for the prescription drug oxycodone. It usually refers to the pure, immediate release form of oxycodone. However, there are several drugs which combine oxycodone with anti-inflammatory medications. In certain circumstances, these drugs may mistakenly be called “roxies.”

The name “roxy” was derived from the brand name “Roxicodone,” which is pure, immediate release oxycodone. It comes in 15mg or 30mg tablets. However, there is another brand name drug, “Roxicet,” which is sometimes mistaken for roxy because of the similarity of the name. Roxicet is oxycodone plus acetaminophen (Tylenol), the same formulation as Percocet. Other oxycodone containing formulations are combined with ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or aspirin.

So how does roxy work? How is it different from an anti-inflammatory?

Roxy is a powerful, prescription narcotic analgesic (painkiller). It affects the central nervous system. Roxy binds to opioid receptors in the brain, which are the same sites your natural pain-inhibiting chemicals bind when you are hurt. It reduces the feeling of pain, but does not have any effect on the source of the pain itself. In addition, roxy, like other drugs with abuse potential, triggers the “reward pathway” in the brain. This is the pathway that is activated when something good happens normally- exercise, sex, and chocolate can all trigger this pathway. Drugs of abuse cause an extreme reaction in this pathway, causing an overproduction of so-called “pleasure chemicals” in the brain. Over time, the pathway adapts to the constant influx of these chemicals. It stops producing as many chemicals in response to the drugs (and any other pleasurable event) and the reward pathway also becomes less responsive to the chemicals. When the drugs are stopped or significantly reduced, the individual experiences depression, anxiety, and drug craving.

Anti-inflammatory drugs treat pain too, but in a different way. They diminish pain by reducing inflammation, unlike roxies, which affect the central nervous system. Basically, anti-inflammatories reduce production of a certain enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX). This is the enzyme that produces prostaglandins, the compounds that travel to the site of an injury and produce inflammation. Inhibiting the COX enzyme can cause some of the negative side effects that are common with anti-inflammatories, most notably gastrointestinal issues.  Prostaglandins also regulate the lining of the stomach, so when the COX enzyme is inhibited and the body produces fewer prostaglandins, the lining gets thinner. Peptic ulcers are a sometimes caused by long-term anti-inflammatory use. However, unlike roxies, anti-inflammatory medications are not habit-forming. They do not stimulate the reward pathway of the brain, and thus do not cause tolerance and addiction. Common anti-inflammatories are aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. Oxycodone plus aspirin is sold under the brand name Percodan or Endodan and oxycodone plus ibuprofen is Combunox.