Roxicodone Addiction in Women

Roxicodone Addiction in Women

Roxicodone is prescribed for the treatment of severe pain. The primary ingredient in Roxicodone is oxycodone which provides pain relief for extreme pain and also provides the individual with a sense of relaxation and euphoria. The pleasurable sensations of roxicodone are what causes them to cross the line between taking roxicodone and having a roxicodone addiction. Roxicodone can be chewed, injected, swallowed, or snorted.  Street names of roxicodone include roxi, roxies, Blue, Hillbilly Heroin, Kicker, and Poor Man’s Heroin.  Though roxicodone typically comes in the form of a pill, it can also be crushed up into a white powder or dissolved in water.

Roxicodone addiction in women is similar to roxicodone addiction for everyone else. In order to maintain a level of pain relief, relaxation, and euphoria that the woman has come to rely on, she must either increase how often she uses roxicodone or increase the amount she uses each time. In addition to this drug abuse a woman with a roxicodone addiction may also have some of the following symptoms such as:

  • A decrease in motivation
  • Irritable behavior
  • Irrational thoughts
  • Loss of energy
  • Increased sleepiness
  • Loss of appetite

Physical Effects – A roxicodone addiction can physically compromise the normal behaviors of the body by interfering with various mechanisms.  Here are some negative physical consequences resulting from using Roxicodone:

  • Dizziness or lack of stability
  • Loss of appetite
  • Dry mouth
  • Compromised mental function
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Liver damage
  • Death due to accidental overdose

Psychological Effects – A roxicodone addiction can also have negative impacts on mental health.  Here are some negative psychological and mental effects from abusing roxicodone:

  • Altered perception of reality
  • Personality shifts
  • Low self-esteem, negative body image
  • Feelings of anger, rage
  • Increased anxiety
  • Mood swings
  • Depression
  • Confusion, disorientation
  • Paranoia

Social Effects – The abuse of roxicodone can result in multiple negative social effects.  These can include the following:

  • Withdrawal, isolation from friends and family
  • Loss of interest in activities once enjoyed
  • Damaged relationships with loved ones
  • Division or brokenness within a family unit

The DEA reports that 1.9 million Americans have taken roxicodone for illicit use. The FDA reports that oxycodone played a role in 464 deaths across the United States in one year.

The issues and situations that contribute to a woman’s roxicodone addiction are different than those for men. There may be some genetic factors that are linked to roxicodone addiction in women, and this would be a biological reason for an addiction to roxicodone. But for roxicodone addiction and women it might also be an attempt to “numb” emotional pain caused from psychological trauma, feelings of anxiety or depression, or instances of abuse.  In these cases, these would be psychological causes of an addiction to roxicodone.  Finally, societal or environmental situations, such as the pressure of being a mother can increase the likelihood that woman might abuse roxicodone. 

The reasons behind roxicodone addiction in women are less important than how they can get help and luckily there are women’s treatment centers that can combat roxicodone addiction specifically in women with their unique issues.

 

 

http://www.michaelshouse.com/oxycodone-addiction/how-oxycodone-addiction-begins/

 

 

The History of Oxycodone

The History of Oxycodone

Oxycodone is a powerful narcotic analgesic. It is the active ingredient in a number of commonly prescribed pain relief medications such as Percocet, Percodan, and Tylox, which are oxycodone plus some sort of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) like aspirin or acetaminophen. Oxycodone is also the active ingredient in OxyContin, a time release, long-acting form of the drug, and Roxicodone, a short acting form of the drug.

Oxycodone, like all drugs in the opiate class, is derived the opium plant. Many similar compounds were sold over the counter in the 19th century. In 1898, Bayer pharmaceuticals released an extremely potent compound known as heroin.

Oxycodone was synthesized from thebaine, which is derived from the opium plant. It was developed in Germany in 1916 as an alternative to heroin, which had been outlawed a couple years prior. It was hoped that oxycodone would have the analgesic (pain-killing) power of heroin without the dependence issues. It was first introduced to American consumers in 1939, but did not become widely used until the release of Percodan (oxycodone plus aspirin) in 1950.

As more people were prescribed oxycodone, its potential for addiction became more widely known.  In 1963, the attorney general of California publicly denounced Percodan abuse as the source of one-third of all drug addictions within the state. As a result, regulation of oxycodone in the United States was increased. In 1970, oxycodone, along with all other opiates, was made a Schedule II drug under the Federal Controlled Substances Act.

In 1974, the FDA approved Percocet (oxycodone plus acetaminophen). It was prescribed in very small quantities. Over the next decade, however, the attitudes towards management of chronic pain began to change. Instead of using painkillers for acute or malignant pain, doctors began to prescribe it for chronic pain. Many of the states adopted new policies that supported the wider use of painkillers by doctors.

In 1995, Purdue pharmaceuticals released OxyContin. Shortly thereafter, Purdue implemented an aggressive marketing campaign. It promoted the use of OxyContin by primary care providers, use in non-cancer pain, and its use as first line therapy for chronic pain. Its marketing was physician directed, and certain promotional claims were even cited in medical journals. Within in two years, OxyContin came to account for 80 percent of all Perdue profits.

As the use of OxyContin became more wide spread, reports of abuse began to increase exponentially. Before the release of OxyContin, all formulations of oxycodone contained an NSAID, which limited its potential for abuse. The NSAID component of the drugs also restricted the routes of administration to oral ingestion. When OxyContin was released, abusers realized that they could crush the pill to release pure oxycodone (up to 80mg in one pill), which allowed larger doses and by additional routes of administrations such as intravenous and intranasal. Due to the widespread abuse, particularly in rural areas, OxyContin came to be known as “Hillbilly Heroin.”

Soon, the lawsuits began. Purdue was accused of disseminating misleading information about OxyContin. In 2001, both the FDA and Purdue issued warnings against the recreational use of the drug. Despite the warnings, OxyContin continued to be one of the most widely abused drugs in the United States.

In 2011, to try to curb abuse of the drug, manufacturers added additional binders to the formulation to prevent the grinding of tablets for insufflation or injection, and to maintain OxyContin’s extended release characteristics. The added binders greatly reduced the recreational value of OxyContin, because they were not easily broken down.

http://www.ehow.com/about_5397213_history-oxycodone.html

http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/AnestheticAndLifeSupportDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM248776.pdf

 

Oxycodone Drug Abuse on College Campus

Oxycodone Drug Abuse in College

Oxycodone Drug Abuse on College Campus

Oxycodone is an opioid prescription pain medication. An opioid in some instances is called a narcotic. Oxycodone is used to treat moderate to severe pain. The extended-release form of oxycodone is for long-term treatment of chronic pain. Oxycodone is most commonly prescribed to patients to manage pain after a big medical procedure or surgery.

The illicit use of prescription painkillers such as Oxycodone is now the number one reason for drug overdose related deaths in the United States. Oxycodone drug abuse is nationwide because of its known euphoric effects, its ability to lessen anxiety, and to give the user an overall pleasant experience. Oxycodone is also extremely addictive so this goes hand in hand with the why it is one of the most commonly abused drugs in the United States. People who abuse Oxycodone usually chew or crush the pills to snort or intravenously inject directly into their blood stream.

Here are some general Oxycodone Drug abuse facts:

  • Oxycodone has more first time abusers than marijuana or cocaine…
  • There is oxycodone use in all 3,140 counties in the United States…
  • Oxycodone has been illicitly abused for the past 20-30 years and is now currently on the rise…
  • The Drug Abuse Warning Network said that, “Oxycodone-related hospital visits increased from 5,211 visits per year in 1998 to over 10,000 visits per year in 2000.” This continues to grow.

So, has oxycodone drug abuse made its way to college kids?

Unfortunately, Oxycodone drug abuse on college campuses nationwide is beginning to rise just like the use of Oxycodone in general. Oxycodone drug abuse has increased dramatically on college and university campuses since the mid 1990’s. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, in 2002 approximately 1.9 million people aged 12 or older had used Oxycodone non-medically at least once in their life time. The Drug Abuse Warning Network’s Report on Narcotic Analgesics shows that ER visits related to abuse of Oxycodone made up 70 percent of the visits from 2000-2001 and the rates were the highest for the college-age group of people between 18-25 years old.

  • Although most college students use prescription drugs properly, about one in four people aged 18 to 20 report using these medications non-medically at least once in their lives (NSDUH, 2008).
  • Non-medical use of pain relievers is on the rise among college-age youth (SAMHSA, 2009a). This age group also has the highest prevalence rate of non-medical use of prescription opioids in the US (McCabe et al, 2007).
  • College students misuse prescription stimulants to ―get in the zone or pull all night study sessions—a habit that is most likely to begin in college (Teter et al, 2006).
  • Among people 18 to 22 years of age, full-time college students are twice as likely to use a stimulant for nonmedical reasons in the past year compared to those who aren’t in college or are only part-time students (SAMHSA, 2009).
  • By students’ sophomore year in college, about half of their classmates will have been offered the opportunity to abuse a prescription drug (Arria, 2008).

Oxycodone Drug Abuse is usually a substitute for heroin drug abuse on college campuses. Because Oxycodone isn’t necessarily a street drug and because Oxycodone is also easily found at college kids’ parent’s houses it makes it more rampant of a drug among young people.

http://www.uwc.edu/aode/drugs/documents/PD-GettheFactsbooklet.pdf

Roxicodone, Oxycodone and OxyContin Explained

OxyContin

Roxicodone, Oxycodone and OxyContin Explained

Roxicodone, Oxycodone and OxyContin are all opioids. An opioid is sometimes called a narcotic. In this case Roxicodone, oxycodone, and OxyContin are all narcotic pain killers that are used in the treatment for moderate to severe pain. Here are Roxicodone, oxycodone, and Oxycontin explained.

Roxicodone, Oxycodone  and Oxycontin   

Roxicodone is the brand name for the narcotic pain killer known as Oxycodone. Roxicodone or Oxycodone works by dulling the pain perception centers in the brain. At high doses, Roxicodone may affect other body systems such as the respiratory system and circulatory system. Roxicodone or Oxycodone is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Oxycodone or Roxies can be abused by snorting or injecting them although when prescribed they are meant to be taken orally. The usual dose of Oxycodone is 10 to 30 milligrams every 4 hours as needed for pain. The doses of Roxicodone can be adjusted based on the severity of the pain. Very severe pain could require 30 milligrams or more every 4 hours. Roxicodone is actually just another name for Oxycodone there are no differences between the two drugs Roxicodone and Oxycodone.

Now, Oxycontin is the same thing as Oxycodone but in a time release form. This means that Oxycontin when taken slowly releases the medicine over a longer period of time. This means that Oxycontin is used for pain maintenance and not necessarily for the immediately relief of severe pain or for pain and anxiety before surgery. Oxycontin comes in 10-160 milligram time release tablets used for chronic and/or long-lasting pain. Oxycontin is prescribed to be taken twice a day which is different than its sister opioid Oxycodone which needs to be taken multiple times a day. Oxycontin is meant to be taken orally but can be snorted or injected by abusers.

Some of the symptoms of Roxicodone, Oxycodone, and Oxycontin are:

  • Slow breathing (respiratory depression)
  • Seizures
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Coma
  • Confusion
  • Tiredness
  • Cold and clammy skin
  • Small pupils
  • Reduced vision
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Clouding of mental functions

Roxicodone, Oxycodone and Oxycontin are all highly addictive. All opioids are highly addictive. Even people who take Roxicodone, Oxycodone and Oxycontin as prescribed cannot suddenly stop taking their medication. If they do stop taking their medication, regardless if it is Roxicodone, Oxycodone, or Oxycontin, they will experience withdrawal symptoms.

Here are some of the withdrawal symptoms of Roxicodone, Oxycodone, and Oxycontin:

  • Tiredness or fatigue
  • Constant yawning
  • Hot/cold sweats
  • Heart palpitations
  • Joints and muscles ache
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Uncontrollable coughing
  • Diarrhea
  • Insomnia
  • Watery eyes
  • Depression

All in all Roxicodone, oxycodone, and Oxycontin are basically the same opiate narcotic painkiller with just a few slight differences. Roxicodone and oxycodone are the same drug whereas Oxycontin is a time release form of oxycodone. This is Roxicodone, oxycodone and Oxycontin explained. Don’t let all the different names for the same drug confuse you because they all have the same effects just are used for different things.

Sources: http://alcoholism.about.com/od/oxy/a/oxycontin.html

Withdrawal Symptoms from Opiates

Withdrawal Symptoms from Opiates

Withdrawal Symptoms from Opiates

Withdrawal symptoms from opiates is referring to the different experiences that occur after stopping or largely reducing the use of opiate drugs after heavy and prolonged use (usually several weeks or more). The street term for withdrawal symptoms for opiates is known as being dope sick.

Opiates include heroin, morphine, codeine, Oxycontin, Dilaudid, methadone and more.

Around 10% of the United States population misuses opiates at some point during their lifetime. Misusing opiates also means using illegal drugs like heroin and prescription painkillers such as Oxycontin in a way other than prescribed. Drugs, such as opiates, cause physical dependence. A physical dependence to opiates means a person relies on them to prevent symptoms of withdrawal from opiates. Over the course of a few weeks, or a longer period of time, a greater amount of opiates will be needed to produce the same affects in the opiate user. The time that it takes to become physically dependent on opiates differs from person to person. When a person who has become physically dependent on opiates stops taking them, the body has to take some time to recover, the result of this is withdrawal symptoms from opiates. Withdrawal symptoms from opiates can happen whenever a person who has been chronically abusing opiates stops or reduces the amount they are using. There are even some instances where someone ends up withdrawing from opiates after being given the drugs for pain in the hospital. Usually the withdrawal from opiates in this instance is not too bad but it is still uncomfortable and the person doesn’t know what’s happening to them. They think they have the flu.

Early withdrawal symptoms from opiates include:

  • Agitation
  • Anxiety
  • Muscle aches
  • Increased tearing
  • Insomnia
  • Runny nose
  • Sweating
  • Yawning

Late withdrawal symptoms from opiates include:

  • Abdominal cramping
  • Diarrhea
  • Dilated pupils
  • Goose bumps
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

The withdrawal symptoms from opiates usually begin within the first 12 hours after the last opiate use. For an opiate for methadone it is 30 hours since the last dose. A doctor can quickly tell if a person has opiate withdrawal symptoms just by asking questions and doing an exam. Blood and urine tests can confirm the diagnosis.

There is help for those withdrawal symptoms from opiates. For instance treatment for the withdrawal from opiates includes medications. The most common medication used for opiate withdrawal is clonidine which helps reduce anxiety, agitation, muscle aches, sweating, runny nose, and muscle cramping. Other medications that can be given are there to help treat vomiting and diarrhea. In some instances Buprenoprhine, better known as Suboxone can be given to help the opiate user taper off their drug of choice. It is also good for treating withdrawal symptoms. It helps to reduce the intensity of the opiate withdrawal symptoms. The treatment programs for withdrawal symptoms from opiates are known as detoxes and are purposely in place to help those who are experiencing any kind of withdrawal from any substances what so ever.

It is best if anyone is withdrawing from opiates or any substance to seek medical assistance and utilize a medical opiate detox facility.

Psychological Effects of OxyContin Abuse

Psychological Effects of OxyContin Abuse

OxyContin is a narcotic painkiller that has become popular for treating pain. However, OxyContin use can give way to addiction, even in cases where the drug is prescribed for legitimate pain. The psychological effects of OxyContin abuse can be extreme, affecting memory, mood and cognition.

Psychological Effects of OxyContin Abuse: Cognition and Memory

OxyContin significantly affects the brain’s function. OxyContin can affect the brain’s ability to form, retain and recall information, leading to memory problems. Users often experience problems with concentration and cognition as well.  The cognitive processes may be disrupted, particularly during use and during the withdrawal phase.

Psychological Effects of OxyContin Abuse: Tolerance and Withdrawal

OxyContin works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain. They bind to the same receptors that our bodies’ natural painkillers bind to. After prolonged OxyContin use, the body stops producing natural painkillers (neurotransmitters) resulting in opiate dependency. When an individual is physically dependent on OxyContin and they suddenly stop using OxyContin or reduce the dose significantly, they experience a set of symptoms known as OxyContin withdrawal.

OxyContin withdrawal results when a person becomes “tolerant” to OxyContin.  Tolerance results when the brain adapts to regular OxyContin use over a long period of time. Eventually, it takes more and more of the OxyContin to produce the original effect. This is what happens to long term OxyContin users. Their brains expect the OxyContin. When OxyContin use is stopped or the dose is significantly reduced, the body reacts in a physical way. It can be very painful because pain sensitivity actually increases.

Psychological Effects of OxyContin Abuse: Mood

Because OxyContin affects the neurotransmitters your body produces, it can have a profound effect on your mood. OxyContin triggers the “reward pathway” in the brain. This is the pathway that is activated when something good happens normally- exercise, sex, and chocolate can all trigger this pathway. OxyContin causes an extreme reaction in this pathway, causing an overproduction of so-called “pleasure chemicals” in the brain. Over time, the pathway adapts to the constant influx of these chemicals. It stops producing as many chemicals in response to the OxyContin (and any other pleasurable event) and the reward pathway also becomes less responsive to the chemicals. When OxyContin use is stopped or significantly reduced, the individual experiences depression, anxiety, and craving.

Because of this effect on the reward pathway, users often experience mood swings. During the high the user could be happy and excited, but once the drug begins to leave the body, users often become irritable and depressed. These mood swings can make OxyContin users unpredictable. They may be aggressive or easily agitated.

Psychological Effects of OxyContin Abuse: Emotional

OxyContin addiction can lead to emotional problems over time, including delusions, hallucinations, or even delirium with long-term addiction. Due to alterations in natural brain chemistry, long term OxyContin use can also trigger mood swings, clinical depression, panic attacks and sleep disorders. These emotional effects can last for months or even years after OxyContin use is stopped.

OxyContin’s effects on children

OxyContin’s effects on children

Oxycontin’s effects on children are still unknown. What is known that is Oxycontin is highly addictive and a dangerous pharmaceutical painkiller even for adults. The reason OxyContin effects on children are still unknown is because it is not approved although recently there are test being done to study OxyContin effects on children. Purdue pharma is beginning test on terminally ill children as well as children with moderate to severe pain to see how OxyContin affects them specifically. The results of these test are still unknown.

What about Oxycontin is known?

Oxycontin effects are similar to those of heroin and morphine. OxyContin when taken as prescribed for a long period of time is highly addictive but does offer pain relief for those with chronic pain. Oxycontin if taken recreationally can be fatal. In fact OxyContin’s effects are so powerful even if it is taken as prescribed that it can cause overdose and sometimes death. Oxycontin has caused a new epidemic of prescription drug abuse throughout the United States. Some of the symptoms of taking too much OxyContin are:

Some symptoms of OxyContin overdose include:

So it could be extremely dangerous for children to take it just looking at the effects of OxyContin in general. The problem with children taking OxyContin is not only that because of its intense painkilling effects but also because of its high probability of addiction.

Because OxyContin effects on children are still unknown it can be severely damaging to them if they begin taking it or abusing it for any reason.

One of the biggest reasons that OxyContin effects on children can’t be tested is because of the dangers of it. No one knows how the children will react to OxyContin or how OxyContin will affect their mind and body.

Oxycontin effects on children shouldn’t be known because children shouldn’t be taken such a powerful narcotic painkiller. Really what they should do is stick with what already works. The dangers associated with OxyContin already are not something that should be subjected to children when there are other narcotic painkillers available. Morphine and dilaudid are used on children and the effects have been studied, seen, and tested again and again. Putting OxyContin effects on children is just another problem to add to the already epic sized issue the country has with OxyContin.

Oxycontin effects on children may soon be known. The study that Purdue Pharma is currently conducting is not a placebo trial. Instead, it involves about 150 patients from 6 to 16 years of age who are already on opioid painkillers. In the study, which is expected to be completed next year, those patients will get OxyContin for up to six months.