DXM Addiction

DXM Addiction

Dextromethorphan (DXM), is a common ingredient found in many over-the-counter cough and cold medicines, and is used as a recreational drug for its dissociative effects. Dextromethorphan has powerful dissociative properties when taken at doses well above the recommended therapeutic dosage for cough suppression. DXM addiction is sometimes referred to in slang form as robo-tripping, derived from the Robitussin brand name, or Triple Cs, which comes from the Coricidin brand because the pills are printed with “CCC,” which stands for Coricidin Cough and Cold.

DXM Effects

DXM in low recreational doses (between 100–200 mg), is described as having a euphoric effect. With middle doses come more intense euphoria, vivid imagination, and closed-eye hallucinations. With high doses of DXM, there is a profound alteration in consciousness and users often report out-of-body experiences or temporary psychosis. Another characteristic of high doses of DXM as seen in DXM addiction is something called “flanging,” speeding up or slowing down of sensory input.

DXM Recreational Use and DXM Addiction

There are definitely specific groups that seem to be at a higher risk of DXM abuse and DXM addiction, including teenagers, alcoholics, and narcotic abusers. Other street names for DXM include: “Candy,” “C-C-C,” “Dex,” “DM,” “Drex,” “Red Devils,” “Robo,” “Rojo,” “Skittles,” “Tussin,” “Velvet,” and “Vitamin D.” And slang terms for abusing DXM are: “Dexing,” “Robotripping,” and “Robodosing.” Some findings suggest that DXM can produce ethanol-like effects in both alcoholics and non-alcoholics and can cause a mild form of craving in alcoholics. In 2005, following the deaths of 5 teenagers known to use DXM in pure powder form, the FDA expressed its concern about potential DXM abuse and DXM addiction.

Plateaus of DXM Use Leading to DXM Addiction

First plateau: alertness, restlessness, increased heartbeat, increased body temperature, intensification of emotions, euphoria, loss of balance, and mild inebriation similar to drunkenness.

Second plateau: effects are similar to the first plateau, but with heavier intoxication, choppy sensory input, a dreamlike state of consciousness, some detachment from outside world, and closed-eye hallucinations; slurred speech, mild hallucinations, short term memory impairment.

Third plateau: difficulty recognizing people or objects, chaotic blindness, dreamlike vision, inability to comprehend language, abstract hallucinations, delayed reaction time, decision making impairment, feelings of peace and quiet, near complete loss of motor coordination, short-term memory impairment, and/or feelings of rebirth. This third level is an altered state of consciousness and vision or other senses may be impaired.

Fourth plateau: loss of contact and control with their own body, changes in visual perception, out-of-body experiences, perceptions of contact with “superior” beings, lack of movement or desire to move, rapid heart rate, complete blindness, increased hearing, and intensification of third plateau effects. The fourth state, a person can lose contact with their body and with all senses shut off. This level of intoxication is similar to using PCP or to that of being in a K hole (overdose of ketamine known as Special K).

Plateau Sigma: occurs by prolonging dosage; marked by psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations. Users report auditory hallucinations, for example rather than simply feeling tired and sitting down, a user might hear a voice saying, “sit down now, you’re tired,” and feel compelled to obey. These experiences are mostly described as unpleasant.

Symptoms of DXM Addiction

A survey of DXM users showed that more than half of them reported experiencing the following withdrawal symptoms for the first week after long-term and/or chronic use, or DXM addiction: fatigue, apathy, flashbacks, and constipation. Over a quarter of DXM users reported insomnia, nightmares, an inability to experience pleasure in usual activities, impaired memory, attention deficit and decreased libido. Other more rare side effects reported were panic attacks, impaired learning, tremor, jaundice, hives and muscle aches. Frequent and long-term usage at very high doses could possibly lead to toxic psychosis and other permanent psychological problems.

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/

http://www.jabfm.org/

What is Meperidine?

Meperidine

What is Meperidine?

Meperidine is a narcotic painkiller similar to the drug morphine. Meperidine is more well-known as the opiate Demerol HCL. Meperidine is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine was the first synthetic opioid made in 1932 by the chemist Otto Eslib.

Meperidine is taken either in pill form or as syrup which is much like a cough syrup. When taken in pill form meperidine comes in 50mg and 100mg tablets. It is meant to be taken every 3 to 4 hours when taken orally. The max amount of meperidine that is recommended is 150mg every 4 hours.  Meperidine can also be taken by injection into the muscle tissue, skin tissue, or veins. Meperidine was the opiate of choice by many doctors for a long time because it was thought to be safer and less addictive than morphine. Meperidine was also supposed to be better at treating pain in comparison to morphine. The truth about meperidine or Demerol is that it doesn’t work any better than morphine, is just as addictive, and just as dangerous. Which is why Demerol, is not as quickly prescribed as a painkiller today. Some doctors do continue to prescribe meperidine but not nearly as many.

Meperidine has multiple side effects and drug interactions. Because meperidine is a narcotic painkiller its side effects are very similar to those of morphine.

Less serious side effects of meperidine may include:

  • constipation;
  • loss of appetite;
  • headache, dizziness, mild weakness;
  • dry mouth;
  • sweating;
  • itching;
  • urinating less than usual; or
  • loss of interest in sex.

Serious side effects of meperidine include:

  • weak or shallow breathing, slow heartbeat;
  • severe drowsiness, feeling like you might pass out;
  • seizure (convulsions);
  • cold, clammy skin;
  • muscle movements you cannot control;
  • confusion, mood changes;
  • severe weakness or dizziness; or
  • agitation, hallucinations, fever, fast heart rate, overactive reflexes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of coordination, fainting;

Stopping the use of meperidine after a long period use may also lead to severe meperidine withdrawal symptoms. This is because the continued use of a narcotic painkiller such as meperidine can lead to meperidine addiction. Meperidine addiction is scary and involves needing more and more of the drug to get the same effects and the inability to stop without experiencing meperidine withdrawal symptoms.  Symptoms of meperidine withdrawal can vary in intensity depending on length of time the individual has been using the drug and dosage. The symptoms associated with Demerol withdrawal are usually experienced within a few hours after the last administration. Early withdrawal symptoms include:

  • watery eyes,
  • insomnia,
  • diarrhea,
  • runny nose,
  • yawning,
  • sneezing,
  • dysphoria,
  • sweating,
  • and in most cases a strong drug craving.

As meperidine withdrawal symptoms progress the individual is likely to experience

  • restlessness,
  • irritability,
  • loss of appetite,
  • body aches,
  • severe abdominal pain,
  • nausea and vomiting,
  • tremors, irritability,
  • and even stronger and more intense drug craving.
  • Severe depression and vomiting are also very common.

Any narcotic painkiller such as meperidine has a use during certain times especially those in which an individual is under severe pain, surgery or in a hospital setting. It is good to remember though that all opiates are highly addictive and that taking any opiate including meperidine for a long period of time will and always will lead to a physical addiction to the drug. With physical addiction to any opiate comes withdrawal symptoms and the same goes for meperidine. Meperidine has a lot of drug interactions too, so always consult with your doctor before you begin using any prescription narcotic.

http://www.rxlist.com/demerol-drug/indications-dosage.htm