DXM Addiction

DXM Addiction

Dextromethorphan (DXM), is a common ingredient found in many over-the-counter cough and cold medicines, and is used as a recreational drug for its dissociative effects. Dextromethorphan has powerful dissociative properties when taken at doses well above the recommended therapeutic dosage for cough suppression. DXM addiction is sometimes referred to in slang form as robo-tripping, derived from the Robitussin brand name, or Triple Cs, which comes from the Coricidin brand because the pills are printed with “CCC,” which stands for Coricidin Cough and Cold.

DXM Effects

DXM in low recreational doses (between 100–200 mg), is described as having a euphoric effect. With middle doses come more intense euphoria, vivid imagination, and closed-eye hallucinations. With high doses of DXM, there is a profound alteration in consciousness and users often report out-of-body experiences or temporary psychosis. Another characteristic of high doses of DXM as seen in DXM addiction is something called “flanging,” speeding up or slowing down of sensory input.

DXM Recreational Use and DXM Addiction

There are definitely specific groups that seem to be at a higher risk of DXM abuse and DXM addiction, including teenagers, alcoholics, and narcotic abusers. Other street names for DXM include: “Candy,” “C-C-C,” “Dex,” “DM,” “Drex,” “Red Devils,” “Robo,” “Rojo,” “Skittles,” “Tussin,” “Velvet,” and “Vitamin D.” And slang terms for abusing DXM are: “Dexing,” “Robotripping,” and “Robodosing.” Some findings suggest that DXM can produce ethanol-like effects in both alcoholics and non-alcoholics and can cause a mild form of craving in alcoholics. In 2005, following the deaths of 5 teenagers known to use DXM in pure powder form, the FDA expressed its concern about potential DXM abuse and DXM addiction.

Plateaus of DXM Use Leading to DXM Addiction

First plateau: alertness, restlessness, increased heartbeat, increased body temperature, intensification of emotions, euphoria, loss of balance, and mild inebriation similar to drunkenness.

Second plateau: effects are similar to the first plateau, but with heavier intoxication, choppy sensory input, a dreamlike state of consciousness, some detachment from outside world, and closed-eye hallucinations; slurred speech, mild hallucinations, short term memory impairment.

Third plateau: difficulty recognizing people or objects, chaotic blindness, dreamlike vision, inability to comprehend language, abstract hallucinations, delayed reaction time, decision making impairment, feelings of peace and quiet, near complete loss of motor coordination, short-term memory impairment, and/or feelings of rebirth. This third level is an altered state of consciousness and vision or other senses may be impaired.

Fourth plateau: loss of contact and control with their own body, changes in visual perception, out-of-body experiences, perceptions of contact with “superior” beings, lack of movement or desire to move, rapid heart rate, complete blindness, increased hearing, and intensification of third plateau effects. The fourth state, a person can lose contact with their body and with all senses shut off. This level of intoxication is similar to using PCP or to that of being in a K hole (overdose of ketamine known as Special K).

Plateau Sigma: occurs by prolonging dosage; marked by psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations. Users report auditory hallucinations, for example rather than simply feeling tired and sitting down, a user might hear a voice saying, “sit down now, you’re tired,” and feel compelled to obey. These experiences are mostly described as unpleasant.

Symptoms of DXM Addiction

A survey of DXM users showed that more than half of them reported experiencing the following withdrawal symptoms for the first week after long-term and/or chronic use, or DXM addiction: fatigue, apathy, flashbacks, and constipation. Over a quarter of DXM users reported insomnia, nightmares, an inability to experience pleasure in usual activities, impaired memory, attention deficit and decreased libido. Other more rare side effects reported were panic attacks, impaired learning, tremor, jaundice, hives and muscle aches. Frequent and long-term usage at very high doses could possibly lead to toxic psychosis and other permanent psychological problems.

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/

http://www.jabfm.org/

How to Taper Down Your Opiate Use Safely

How to Taper Down Your Opiate Use Safely

how to taper down your opiate use

If you do your research on how to taper down your opiate use safely, you will find that there are many opinions floating around out there in the internet ether. One thing is for sure, tapering down your opiate intake is way better than going cold turkey.

Taper Down vs. Cold Turkey

You will want to taper down your opiate use. Trust me. If you have never experienced withdrawals or being dope sick, then you are quite lucky, indeed. Knowing what to expect so that you can prepare both physically and mentally is a great way to begin getting off of opiates, even before you actually start to taper down.

Going cold turkey is the opposite of doing a taper off plan. Cold turkey means to just up and quit without weaning yourself off of the steady supply of opiates you have been taking. If you don’t taper off, your withdrawal will be much more acute: the dope sick symptoms will be way more harsh and difficult to endure.

Opiate Withdrawal Symptoms

Opiate withdrawal symptoms are often described as flu-like in nature. You will experience muscle aches, watery eyes, excessive yawning, runny nose, sweating, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, vomiting, and chills and goose bumps.

There are also psychological withdrawal symptoms when you quit taking opiates. You will experience insomnia, depression, agitation and anxiety. Neurological symptoms of opiate withdrawal are restlessness (such as Restless Leg Syndrome – which you may experience in your arms and neck, as well) and, in severe cases, seizures.

How to Taper Down From Opiates

You will want to go about your taper in a slow and regimented way. One way to do this is to reduce your opiate doses by about 20% to 25% every 2 or 3 days to minimize withdrawals. Tapering off your dosage before you stop cold turkey makes everything so much better. If you are taking anything above 10 mg of any opiate more than twice a day then tapering to a lower dosage is the best thing you can do for you and your body. You may think this is impossible but it can be done and your withdrawal symptoms will be greatly lessened.

Other Helpful Tips While You Taper Off Opiates

OTCs

  • Get over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil) or naproxen (Aleve), and acetaminophen (Tylenol). Also get Epsom salts and take hot baths as often as possible during your taper down from opiates. These will help you to manage the body aches that you will experience during withdrawal. Remember: the small aches that you’ve been handling easily with opiates are going to feel magnified while the drugs are leaving your system.
  • Get an antihistamine with sedating effects, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), or dimenhydrinate (Dramamine). These will help with the watery eyes as well as with the nausea and insomnia.
  • Get anti-diarrhea medicine. Again, going through withdrawal from opiates, even if you taper off opiates will cause diarrhea. Loperamide hydrochloride (Immodium AD) is your best bet.

**Helpful hint: Make sure to get a 2-week supply of these over-the-counter medications because, once you start the withdrawal process, you will not want to walk or drive anywhere.

Prepare a comfortable environment, whether it’s your room or the couch. Be sure to have comfortable pillows and comfy blankets.

Don’t go it alone. If you aren’t checking into a rehab facility, then stay with someone who will support you during the withdrawal process and who understands how to taper off of opiates. This is particularly helpful because you may be tempted to take more than you have planned once the going gets tough. Having someone help you taper down by holding onto your opiate supply and giving you each dose on a strict schedule.

And lastly, drink plenty of water and eat regularly, even if you don’t feel hungry. Your body needs nourishment and hydration. Vomiting and diarrhea can cause dehydration so be sure to drink water or fruit juice to replace any fluids that you lose.

 

 

 

 

Source:

http://www.wikihow.com/

What can cocaine be cut with?

What can cocaine be cut with?

what can cocaine be cut with?Cocaine is rarely pure. Cocaine users may think what they are getting is pure cocaine but the truth is it is always cut with something to make it less pure and therefore upping the profit for the cocaine dealer. There are many things that cocaine can be cut with. Here are some of the most common things:

  • Baking soda
  • Sugars, such as lactose, inositol, and mannitol.
  • Local anesthetic, such as lidocaine or benzocaine, which mimics or adds to cocaine’s numbing effect on mucous membranes.
  • Cocaine may also be “cut” with other stimulants such as methamphetamine.

What can cocaine be cut with? Baking Soda

Baking soda is merely just another almost unrecognizable powder that can be mixed with cocaine so the user doesn’t know it has been cut. Sodium bicarbonate or baking powder is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate).

What can cocaine be cut with? Lactose

Another major use of lactose is in the pharmaceutical industry. Lactose is added to pills as filler because of its physical properties and low price. Because of this reason it also makes a great thing to cut cocaine with.

What can cocaine be cut with? Inositol and Mannitol

Inositol is used as an adulterant (or cutting agent) in many illegal drugs, such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and sometimes heroin. It is presumed that this use is connected with one or more of the substance’s properties of solubility, powdery texture, or reduced sweetness (50%) as compared with more common sugars. Inositol is also used as a stand-in for cocaine on television.

Mannitol is sometimes used as an adulterant or cutting agent for heroin, methamphetamines, cocaine, or other illicit drugs. In popular culture, when it is used in this manner, it is often referred to as baby laxative. Other places you can find mannitol? Your chewing gum!

What can cocaine be cut with? Lidocaine

Lidocaine is often added to cocaine as a diluent. Cocaine numbs the gums when applied, and since lidocaine causes stronger numbness, so a cocaine user gets the impression of high-quality cocaine when in actuality, the user is receiving a diluted product.

What can cocaine be cut with? Benzocaine

Benzocaine is commonly found, as an impurity in street cocaine. While it gives a numbing effect similar to cocaine on users’ gums it does not actually produce the effects of cocaine

What can cocaine be cut with? Meth

Cocaine cut with meth can make a dangerous mixture. This is especially true for the person who thinks they are just doing cocaine and has never done meth. Meth is much more potent than cocaine and the high is much more long lasting. Cocaine that is cut with meth would be very potent and intense.

Regardless of what cocaine is cut with, cocaine users should be wary. If cocaine is cut with anything that doesn’t mix well with the user it can be highly dangerous.

 

 

Nucynta Addiction

Nucynta Addiction

Nucynta is the brand name for an opioid SNRI known as Tapentadol. Nucynta provides pain relief that is comparable to other more well-known opioid analgesics such as hydrocodone and oxycodone but has more tolerable side effects. The way Nucynta works has been compared to tramadol and oxycodone but its potency is said to be somewhere between morphine and tramadol in effectiveness.

Nucynta is a brand new opioid analgesic to hit the market. Nucynta or Tapentadol, was approved by the United States FDA for the treatment of moderate to acute pain, and in 2011, the extended release formula of the drug known as Nucynta ER, was approved by the US FDA for the treatment of specific types of moderate to severe chronic pain. Because Nucynta not only helps to combat pain but also helps with norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Nucynta has the possibility of helping with many off-label uses including chronic pain and certain mood disorders. The mixture of an opiate and a serotonin-norepinephrine (SNRI) reuptake inhibitor is meant to make the opiate more effective.

So if Nucynta is an opiate is it addictive?

Yes. Nucynta has many adverse effects including an addiction potential. Many of the side effects of Nucynta are similar to those of oxycodone and morphine. Nucynta has been shown to cause less nausea and dizziness than morphine though. Nucynta can impair physical and mental abilities and with regular use can result in dependence which can lead to a Nucynta addiction. Someone who has a Nucynta addiction will experience Nucynta withdrawal symptoms just as they would if they had any other kind of opiate addiction.

Nucynta addiction

Nucynta can be abuse either by crushing, chewing, snorting or injecting it. Using Nucynta in this way can easily lead to an overdose and potentially death. Nucynta addiction overdose is not very common but it can happen. Nucynta can suppress breathing and this can cause overdose and death. Nucynta overdose is more likely to happen if it is taken with other drug such as alcohol. Alcohol has been shown to increase the effects of Nucynta making it much more dangerous. Signs of a Nucynta overdose can include hypotension, coma, respiratory depression, and somnolence.

Someone who has a past history of addiction is at a much higher risk of abusing Nucynta and is at a higher risk of using Nucynta with other drugs and alcohol; and is therefore also at a much higher risk of developing a Nucynta addiction.

Nucynta addiction looks just like an addiction to any other opiate. Many Nucynta addicts will use the same methods to get the drug that they would use to get morphine or oxycodone. Nucynta addiction can cause a person to doctor shop, medication seek, and buy the drug on the street. The potential this drug has for a Nucynta addiction is part of the reason it is classified as a Schedule II narcotic with oxycodone and morphine.

Once a Nucynta addiction has formed in order for the individual to get off the drug they have to go through the withdrawal process. Withdrawal symptoms due to a Nucynta addiction can be realy unpleasant and just as with any other opiate withdrawal it is recommended that a Nucynta addict seek professional medical help.

Nucynta addiction withdrawal symptoms can include but are not limited to:

  • Anxiety
  • Sweating
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Tremors
  • Diarrhea
  • Hallucinations

Treatment for a Nucynta addiction usually begins with detox where the individual will be given suboxone or will slowly taper off the medication. Luckily for anyone with a Nucynta addiction treatment is available and no one has to be stuck in it.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapentadol

http://www.webmd.com/drugs/drug-152563-Nucynta+Oral.aspx?drugid=152563&drugname=Nucynta+Oral&source=0&pagenumber=4

Clonidine for Opiate Withdrawal

Clonidine for Opiate Withdrawal

Clonidine is actually a medication that has many uses. But clonidine also happens to be an old school medication used in the treatment of opiate withdrawal since 1978.

What is clonidine?

Clonidine is a prescription medication that is used to treat everything from high blood pressure to ADHD and panic disorder. Clonidine, when it was originally prescribed, was used for the treatment of high blood pressure but it also found other ways to be useful. Clonidine can help in the treatment of neuropathic pain, insomnia, ADHD, with the symptoms of menopause, as a veterinary anesthetic drug and for opiate withdrawal. Clonidine also has several off-label uses, and has been prescribed to treat psychiatric disorders including stress, sleep disorders, and hyper-arousal caused by post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and other anxiety disorders

Clonidine and withdrawal

While clonidine is most popularly used in the treatment of opiate withdrawal it can also be used to help with the withdrawal symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal, alcohol withdrawal and other narcotics. The way clonidine works for withdrawal is it helps to alleviate the symptoms of withdrawal.

What is opiate withdrawal?

Opiate withdrawal refers to the wide range of symptoms that occur after stopping or dramatically reducing opiate drugs after long and heavy drug use. An opiate drug that would cause opiate withdrawal could be anything from heroin, morphine, codeine, Oxycontin, Dilaudid, to methadone.

Opiates such as the medications listed above cause a physical dependence and this physical dependence causes a person to rely on the medication to feel ok. When a person becomes reliant on an opiate to be ok chances are they are going to experience opiate withdrawal when they decide to stop or want to stop.

Clonidine for withdrawal

Many of the symptoms associated with opiate withdrawal are severely unpleasant.

Early symptoms of withdrawal include:

•Agitation

•Anxiety

•Muscle aches

•Increased tearing

•Insomnia

•Runny nose

•Sweating

•Yawning

Late symptoms of withdrawal include:

•Abdominal cramping

•Diarrhea

•Dilated pupils

•Goose bumps

•Nausea

•Vomiting

Clonidine for opiate withdrawal can help to alleviate many of these. For instance clonidine for opiate withdrawal can help with irregular heartbeat and high blood pressure. Clonidine for opiate withdrawal can also help to reduce the sweating, hot and cold flashes and restlessness associated with opiate withdrawal. The sedation effects of clonidine can also help with the symptoms of opiate withdrawal that include insomnia. Clonidine for opiate withdrawal may also be helpful with little aches and pains. Clonidine for opiate withdrawal can also help with the restless leg syndrome many opiate addicts experience.

Clonidine for opiate withdrawal is most often used in a medical setting such as an opiate detox. An opiate detox is equipped to give out medication and help individuals to detox from opiates. At an opiate detox clonidine is usually available in tablets that go by their brand name (catapres, catapresan, and dixarit). The normal daily dosage of clonidine for opiate withdrawal ranges between 0.5 and 1.5 milligrams depending on the stage as well as the severity of the withdrawal symptoms.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clonidine

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000949.htm

 

What is Hippy Crack?

What is Hippy Crack?

Hippy crack may be better known to you as nitrous oxide and nitrous oxide may be even better known to you as, well, laughing gas or when abuse whip its. Hippy crack is simply laughing gas. Yes, it is the same stuff you get at the dentist. Hippy crack or nitrous oxide is a colorless, non-flammable gas, with a slightly sweet odor and taste. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anesthetic and analgesic effects. It is known as “laughing gas” because of the euphoric effects of inhaling it; which has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anesthetic and its new name “hippy crack.”

And hippy crack is very popular among young people and even celebrities. Think Demi Moore and kids who aren’t old enough to buy alcohol.

The legal high known as ‘hippy crack’ was used by one in 16 young people, according to new figures. The first data to be released on the use of nitrous oxide reveals more than six per cent, or 350,000 people aged 16-24 year used the drug last year. Because hippy crack is so popular and because of its legality it makes it seem “safe”. This just isn’t the case. Hippy crack or laughing gas as it is lovingly named is actually very dangerous to health.

“Hippy crackheads” or nitrous oxide abusers when they inhale the gas will feel extremely euphoric, dizzy, and detached and numb while high on nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide abusers also may have auditory and visual hallucinations. The high often lasts for three to five minutes. During repeated use, nitrous oxide has been shown to damage the out ring of the cortex in the brain, which is responsible for general awareness; and the connective region of the cortex, which controls episodic (long-term) memory. Symptoms of hippy crack abuse include nausea, slurred speech, lack of coordination and depression. Repeated use of hippy crack also causes B12 vitamin deficiency. Even if the nitrous oxide abuser or hippy crackhead does not overdose, it can put them at risk for anemia. Nitrous oxide reduces red blood cell count since it pushes oxygen out of the blood stream. That can lead to nerve and organ damage.

Hippy crack or laughing gas better known as nitrous oxide can also be fatal. Repeated nitrous oxide abuse causes fatal danger because it causes respiratory depression, also known as hypoventilation. This prevents carbon dioxide from leaving the body, which in turn reduces the amount of oxygen reaching the brain. When the brain does not receive enough oxygen, seizures and loss of consciousness can happen. A common side effect after use is vomiting. Therefore, an unconscious nitrous oxide abuser cannot clear the airway of vomit. Asphyxiation or choking can also occur and cause death since the nitrous oxide has replaced oxygen in the lungs. Inhaling hippy crack can also lead to sudden death syndrome. There have been incidences where just one inhalation of hippy crack has led to death most likely for the reasons mentioned above.

Nitrous oxide may get laughable names such as “hippy crack” or “laughing gas” but it is no joke. Nitrous oxide is a potent gas that can seriously do some damage to the human body and brain as well.

http://voices.yahoo.com/the-dangers-nitrous-oxide-abuse-10888845.html?cat=71

 

 

Opioids Are the Most Prescribed Drug in America

Opioids, commonly known as painkillers like Percocet, Vicodin, and Fentanyl, are becoming the most prescribed and abused drugs in America.

Prescription rate and statistics show that Opioids Are the Most Prescribed Drug in America.

Most prescription painkillers are prescribed by primary care and internal medicine doctors and dentists, not specialists. Roughly 20% of prescribers prescribe 80% of all prescription painkillers Dentists were the main prescribers for youth aged 10-19 years old. Nearly 46% of opioid prescriptions were given to patients between ages 40 and 59, and most of those were from primary care providers. The records show the trend that opioids are the most prescribed drug in America because approximately 56% of painkiller prescriptions were given to patients who had filled another prescription for pain from the same or different providers within the past month. In addition, nearly 12% of opioids prescribed were to young people aged 10-29, a nearly 20 year increase in the use of prescription painkillers. From 1991 to 2009, prescriptions for opioid painkillers increased almost threefold, to over 200 million, showing a trend that opioids are the most prescribed drug in America.

An analysis of national prescribing patterns shows that more than half of patients who received an opioid prescription in 2009 had filled another opioid prescription within the previous 30 days.

Misuse and Abuse

With the exponential increase in prescribing patterns, opioids are the most prescribed drug in America and more and more patients are abusing their prescription, meaning that they are taking more than what is prescribed to them. Indicators for this behavior include running out of their month’s supply before the original prescription is able to be re-filled, doctor-shopping (visiting different doctors) in order to obtain multiple prescriptions, getting prescriptions filled at different pharmacies so as not to raise any “red flags,” and even resorting to purchasing them illegally, either online, through an acquaintance, or off the street.

The misuse and abuse of prescription painkillers was responsible for more than 475,000 emergency department visits in 2009, a number that nearly doubled in just five years.

Overdose and deaths

Nearly three out of four prescription drug overdoses are caused by prescription painkillers. The unprecedented rise in overdose deaths in the U.S. parallels a 300% increase since 1999 in the sale of these medications, which were involved in 14,800 overdose deaths in 2008.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the CDC), now that opioids are the most prescribed drug in America, prescription painkiller overdose is now the second leading cause of accidental death in the United States, killing more people than heroin and cocaine combined.

In 2010, nearly 60% of the drug overdose deaths involved pharmaceutical drugs. Opioid analgesics, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and methadone, were involved in about 3 of every 4 pharmaceutical overdose deaths.

Men vs. Women

The CDC also finds that, although more men are dying of prescription drug overdoses, women are catching up. In the last 14 years, the percentage increase in deaths has been greater for women, spiking by 400% as opposed to 265% for men.

Being that opioids are the most prescribed drug in America, it is no wonder that access to these potent painkillers has gotten easier. A curious kid can gain access to opioid prescription pills simply by looking in their parents’ or grandparents’ medicine cabinets.

Sources:

http://www.cdc.gov

http://www.drugabuse.gov

http://oxywatchdog.com

http://www.cdc.gov/