Amphetamine Diet Pills

Amphetamine Diet Pills

Amphetamines are classified as a stimulant and they also work as appetite suppressants in diet pills. The term amphetamines refer to different types like amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. Amphetamines have been used for therapeutic purposes since the 1920s. Due to the abuse of amphetamines they have been restricted and the laws on them have been enforced. All diet pills with amphetamines that are FDA approved require a doctor’s prescription.

How do amphetamine diet pills work?

Appetite is controlled by the brain. Amphetamine diet pills suppress the appetite by increasing levels of dopamine. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that results in alertness, increased concentration, and registers pleasure. The American Psychological Association has suggested that the increase in dopamine due to amphetamine diet pills creates pleasure and therefore makes food more satisfying more quickly. This reduces the appetite and the amount of food a person eats. As dopamine levels increase and pleasure is heightened amphetamine diet pills can become habit-forming, this means that someone can become addicted.

What are the side-effects of amphetamine diet pills?

Amphetamine diet pills can have severe and life-threatening side effects. Because of the way amphetamine diet pills work, they end up increasing bodily functions and a lot of different parts of the body are affected. Amphetamine diet pills have side effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure, dizziness, swelling in the legs and ankles, sweating, increased urination, dry mouth, insomnia, anxiety, depression, vomiting and shortness of breath.

What are the benefits of amphetamine diet pills?

When amphetamine diet pills are taken for a short period of time during a doctor’s close supervision while also mixed with lifestyle changes they can really help someone with weight loss. Most doctors will not prescribe amphetamine diet pills unless the patient is having obesity health problems though, such as diabetes, high blood pressure or heart disease. These are instances where weight loss is imperative and a doctor may deem it necessary regardless of the side effects.

History of amphetamine diet pills

Amphetamines were around long before they began being used as diet pills. During World War II, amphetamines were given to soldiers to help them stay awake, the same with pilots. Amphetamines were originally used to treat asthma, sleep disorders, and hyperactivity. The first amphetamine tablet was marketed in 1937 as a nasal decongestant. The wide spread use of amphetamines began in the 1960s by dieters trying to lose weight.

What are the different types of amphetamine diet pills?

There are four different amphetamine diet pills that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as weight loss medication and these pills have to be prescribed by a doctor. The two most commonly prescribed amphetamine diet pills are phentermine which goes by Adipex-P and lonamin, and sibutramine whose brand name is Meridia. Phentermine is only prescribed for up to 12 weeks and sibutramine up to 12 months. Both of these medications require constant supervision from a physician. Phendimetrazine and diethylprpion are also available by prescription from a doctor.

Methods of Drug Administration

Methods of drug administration

Methods of drug administration

A route of administration is the way that a substance is taken into the body. It is usually classified by application location. Generally, the method of drug administration has an effect on physiological effects of the drug; aka the pharmacodynamics.

Methods of drug administration: Gastrointestinal

Administration through the gastrointestinal tract usually includes anal and oral administration, because substances are taken up through the intestines. Oral can include the sublingual (under the tongue), sublabial (under the lip), and buccal (between the lips and gums) as well as just swallowing. Many drugs like tablets, capsules, and drops are taken orally. Gastrointestinal methods of drug administration can also include gastric feeding, where substances are administered directly into the stomach.

Methods of drug administration: Central Nervous System

There are three basic types of central nervous system methods of drug administration: Epidural, intracerebral, and intracerebroventricular. All of these methods of drug administration involve administering substances in some part of the spine.

Methods of drug administration: Other locations

There are many other methods of drug administration. These can be into the skin, under the skin, nasal, intravenous, into the heart, even in the eye or bone marrow. For drugs of abuse, the common methods of drug administration are oral, anal, inhalation, insufflation (snorting) and intravenous (injecting).

Methods of drug administration: Onset of drugs of abuse

In general, smoking and intravenous routes tend to show similar onset and bioavailability, and these two methods of drug administration have the fastest onset and the highest bioavailability (amount of active drug in the blood stream).However, this is not always the case, particularly when the drug must undergo first-pass metabolism in the liver to become active, or when the drug is compounded with other medications. For example, Suboxone is a formulation of buprenorphine (an opiate) that contains naloxone (an opiate blocker). When the drug is taken appropriately (sublingually) the naloxone is deactivated by the liver, and the user gets the full effect of the opiate. If the drug is injected, the naloxone will block the effect of the naloxone. It is also not advisable to inject or snort formulations containing non-narcotic painkillers (Like Percocet).

Snorting can sometimes cause a more rapid onset of the drug (depending on the drugs absorption through nasal membranes) and sometimes (but not always) has a higher bioavailability than swallowing. Swallowing generally has the slowest onset and the lowest bioavailability, but again, it all depends on the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Shooting, snorting, or smoking Vicoden is not effective; the drug can only be taken orally.

Methods of drug administration: Addiction

It is generally agreed that the more quickly a drug is delivered to the brain, the more likely it will lead to dependence. Consequently the routes of injecting and smoking which deliver drugs relatively quickly are considered more addictive than the routes of snorting or swallowing, which will deliver drugs more slowly. This is why tobacco use (smoking) and heroin use (most often injected) are the two drugs most often associated with dependence among users. When tolerance develops, drug craving and feelings of withdrawal are common.

How Being a Roxy Addict Can Ruin Your Life

How Being a Roxy Addict Can Ruin Your Life

How Being a Roxy Addict Can Ruin Your Life

When I was 24, my boyfriend introduced me to roxies. I was in graduate school so I was studying all the time and really stressed. One night when we were hanging out, he asked me if I wanted to try one. It wasn’t the first time I’d tried drugs. In high school, I was all about the hallucinogens: ecstasy and LSD, for the most part. In college, I drank heavily and did some coke. I’d even tried painkillers before- Vicodin or Percocet. However, I’d never had anything like roxies. He crushed up the little blue pill and gave me half to snort. Almost immediately, I felt light and happy. All my pain went away-physical and emotional. I wasn’t stressed about school anymore. I didn’t care about it, I didn’t care about anything. I felt free.

I started off just doing roxies on the weekends. I’d look forward to it all week long. On Fridays, I couldn’t wait to meet up with my boyfriend and get some of those little blue pills. I’d say to myself “Some people have a drink at the end of a long week, but I don’t really like alcohol, so this is what I do.” I was constantly chasing that feeling when I first used roxies; that high. I could never quite get there, even though I was doing more and more every time.

It wasn’t long until I wanted that relief during the week too. After I finished my studies, I’d snort roxies and just relax. No big deal. But my habit started to get expensive. I began to charge groceries and gas on credit cards so I could use all my cash for roxies. Each month, I’d just pay the minimum payment, so my debt began to grow.

I got frustrated when I couldn’t get as many pills as I wanted from my dealer. Each day I’d buy enough for the next couple, but I always ran out too soon. One day, my dealer asked if I wanted to go to a pill mill for him. These were basically shady doctors who would trade roxy prescriptions for cash. He said he’d pay for my first visit, pay for 100 roxies I was prescribed, and then I could keep going to the doctor on my own and keep all the roxies in the future. I ended up being prescribed 180 roxies on my first visit, so right off the bat I got to keep 80 pills for free.

I began doing roxies every day. I was no longer even getting high; I just needed the pills to feel normal. If I skipped a dose I’d get very very sick. I was going to the pill mill every month, and eventually was getting 210 pills a month. It didn’t matter; I would still run out before my next visit. I started going to multiple clinics.

Eventually, I lost everything to my roxy addiction. I was kicked out of school. When I couldn’t pay rent, I was evicted from my apartment. My credit cards got cancelled when I could no longer make a minimum payment. I ended up living in my car, waking up every morning wanting to die because of my withdrawal. One day while I was sweating and puking in a parking lot, a woman walked by. She looked at me with so much pity; I finally saw myself and what I was doing. I decided to get help.

Quick Facts about PMA, MDMA and Molly

Quick Facts about PMA, MDMA and Molly

Quick Facts about PMA, MDMA and Molly

PMA

  • PMA is a synthetic hallucinogen. It is known chemically as paramethoxyamphetamine.
  • PMA is known as death, Mitsubishi double stack, and is sold as ecstasy.
  • PMA comes in tablet, capsule and in rare cases powder form. PMA looks very similar to Ecstasy and costs about the same amount.
  • PMA doses are usually less than 50 milligrams which is about one pill. PMA causes symptoms that are similar to Ecstasy.
  • PMA symptoms are increased breathing, body temperature, pulse rate and blood pressure, erratic eye movements, muscle spasms, nausea and heightened visual stimulation. PMA doses over 60-80 milligrams are considered lethal. This high of a dose can cause cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, breathing problems, pulmonary congestion, kidney failure, hypothermia, vomiting, convulsions, coma and death.
  • The long term effects of PMA are unknown
  • PMA is classified as a Schedule 1 substance.

MDMA

  • MDMA better known as ecstasy is a synthetic hallucinogen and stimulant. It is known chemically as 3-4 methylendioxymethamphetamine.
  • MDMA is similar to methamphetamine.
  • MDMA is known as Adam, Xtc, X, hug drug, beans and love drug
  • MDMA comes in a tablet form that usually has an imprint with designs or commercial logos.
  • MDMA is usually swallowed in pill form but can be snorted, injected or used as a suppository.
  • MDMA is known for its energizing effects. It can cause distortion in time and perception. It can cause enhanced enjoyment from physical experiences and lasts from three to four hours.
  • MDMA symptoms can include psychological problems, confusion, and depression, sleep problems, craving to do more, severe anxiety, paranoia, and psychotic episodes. It also can include muscle tension, teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, faintness, chills and sweating.
  • The physical effects of MDMA can last for weeks long after the drug has worn off.
  • MDMA is very dangerous for those with heart problems.
  • MDMA is addictive
  • MDMA is a Schedule 1 substance

Molly

  • Molly is better known as MDMA in a pure form. It is a mixture of plant fertilizer out of China, New Zealand, or Australia.
  • Molly produces the same effects as ecstasy.
  • Molly usually comes in pill, capsule or powder form and can be swallowed, snorted, or injected.
  • Molly is supposedly a safer form of ecstasy because there are no additional additives in it.
  • Molly can easily be laced with other drugs.
  • Molly has numerous dangerous side effects. The short term effects of molly are mental stimulation, emotional warmth, enhanced sensory perception, and increased physical energy.
  • Molly can also cause nausea, chills, sweating, teeth clenching, muscle cramping, blurred vision, and sometimes in rare cases sudden death. Molly also interferes with body’s ability to regulate temperature which can also be lethal.
  • Molly can be addictive.
  • Molly is a Schedule 1 substance

PMA, MDMA and Molly are all similar substances that could be classified as being in the same family of drugs. They are all synthetic hallucinogens which have similar effects on the individual’s taking them. PMA, MDMA, and Molly are all considered club drugs and should be taken with caution. They all have a high potential for addiction and can easily lead down a dark disturbing path that may end up with death or needing outside help from a rehab facility to stop.

Sources:

http://pactprevention.org/news/?p=105

http://www.drugfree.org/drug-guide/pma

http://alcoholism.about.com/od/ecstasy/a/ecstasy.htm

Parachuting and Snorting Roxies

Parachuting and Snorting Roxies

Roxicodone better known as roxies on the street are meant to treat moderate to severe pain. Roxicodone can be used before surgery to sedate the patient and to reduce fear. Roxicodone is a narcotic pain reliever. The way Roxicodone works is by dulling the pain perception center in the brain. In high doses, Roxicodone can affect other parts of the body such as the respiratory and circulatory systems also.

Roxies come in pill form and can be crushed and snorted to achieve a quicker effect by those who use the painkiller recreationally or to get “high”. Users can also crush roxies up and “parachute” them. Parachuting roxies means to crush the pill up just as if you were going to snort it but instead to wrap it in a small piece of napkin etc. and swallow it whole. This is also to achieve a quicker effect by those who roxies recreationally. Taking roxies by parachuting or snorting them can be dangerous because of the quicker onset of the drug. Only downfall to parachuting and snorting roxies is the effects of the drug don’t last as long. The main reason that people use roxies recreationally is to feel the intense euphoria or feeling of numbness that it provides. This is regardless of the effects.

Snorting or parachuting roxies can lead to an intense high but it also can lead to more intense effects due to the drug. The effects of snorting and parachuting roxies are but are not limited to constipation, dizziness, itching, vomiting, nausea, drowsiness, and addiction. Other side effects of snorting and parachuting roxies are headaches, weakness, dry mouth and sweating. These effects are very typical to someone who is parachuting or snorting roxies because of the quick onset and short duration. The intensity of the drug being heightened by the route of administration can make many drug users feel this way.

Some of the adverse effects due to snorting and parachuting roxies are:

  • Unsteadiness
  • Severe constipation
  • Irregular breathing
  • Seizures
  • Confusion
  • Severe drowsiness
  • Allergic reactions like hives
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Mood changes and abnormal behavior

Because using roxies by snorting or parachuting them is taking them not as prescribed or directed it is illegal to take them in this manner. It also can lead to more adverse effects as well a heightened risk for addiction. Roxies are highly addictive and cause a lot of damage to an individual’s body. For instance snorting roxies can lead to disintegration of the septum and lead to particles of the pill being inhaled into the lungs. Parachuting roxies while it is taking the drug orally is also crushing the pill so all of it kicks in at once. This can potentially lead to fatal overdose because the intensity of the drug is much stronger when it is crushed up in any capacity.

If an individual gets addicted to roxies through snorting or parachuting they will build a tolerance and that are at a higher risk to begin shooting up or intravenously using roxies. This is when things can get extremely dangerous. If someone is snorting or parachuting roxies chances are they already have a drug addiction problem and will need outside help to stop using roxies. This is because the withdrawal from roxies is so painful many roxy addicts would rather continue using than try to stop. If someone you know is addicted to roxies and is snorting or parachuting them try to get them the help they need.

Source: http://www.drugs.com/cdi/roxicodone.html

 

Pharmacotherapies for Opiate Addiction

Pharmacotherapies for Opiate Addiction

Pharmacotherapies for Opiate Addiction

A few months ago, Hazelden, one of the country’s most well-known 12-step based treatment centers, made headlines when it announced that it would be using long term anti-addiction medications for some of its opiate addicted clients. This represented a sharp change in philosophy for Hazelden. The treatment center had been founded on the idea that abstinence is the cornerstone of recover. Hazelden’s recovery approach has its roots in the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous. But for the first time, Hazelden will begin offering maintenance pharmacotherapies for opiate addiction (addiction to heroin or opioid painkillers). Hazelden’s shift in philosophy is mainly due to the high percentage of relapse they have observed in their opiate addicted clients.

Pharmacotherapies for Opiate Addiction: Maintenance and Detox

There are basically two types of pharmacotherapies for opiate addiction: Detox and Maintenance. Detox pharmacotherapies for opiate addiction are used in almost every medical detox facility or treatment center that offers detox. These are opiate based medications that are used until clients are weaned off the opiates. They are administered in a decreasing manner, with less and less of the drug given each day of the detox.

Maintenance pharmacotherapies for opiate addiction are somewhat more controversial. This is long-term administration of opiate medications to prevent relapse. The medications basically curb cravings and block other short-term opiates-like heroin and most painkillers-from binding to opiate receptors. So if a person tries to use their drug of choice while on maintenance pharmacotherapies for opiate addiction, they will not get the “high.” Critics claim that this is simply trading one addiction for another. However, studies indicate that administering maintenance pharmacotherapies for opiate addiction can reduce overdose fatalities by more than 50%. They also reduce the spread of disease and crime in areas where opiate addiction is common.

Pharmacotherapies for Opiate Addiction: Methadone and Buprenorphine

The two most common pharmacotherapies for opiate addiction are methadone and buprenorphine. Buprenorphine was not originally developed to treat opioid dependency. It was initially indicated for the short-term treatment of opioid withdrawal. However, much like methadone, it wasn’t long before buprenorphine began to be used as a daily, long-term treatment for opioid dependency. The use of buprenorphine to treat morphine dependency resulted in part from a paradigm shift in the medical community. In 2000, Congress passed a law allowing physicians to prescribe narcotics to treat opioid which allowed access to opiate treatment in a medical setting rather than limiting it to federally approved Opioid Treatment Programs.

Although buprenorphine has mainly replaced methadone in private practice, federal opioid dependency programs still used methadone. It works similarly to buprenorphine in that it binds to the opioid receptors in the brain. These drugs have the added benefit of preventing the user from attaining the “high” from heroin and other prescription opioids, because they bind more strongly and for a longer period of time, effectively blocking the receptors from binding to any other drug.  However, methadone is a full agonist at the opioid receptors, whereas buprenorphine is a partial agonist, so there is less chance of overdose with buprenorphine.

Source:

http://healthland.time.com/2012/11/05/hazelden-introduces-antiaddiction-medications-in-recovery-for-first-time/

The Dangers of Online Pharmacies

Online Pharmacies

There are so many dangers of online pharmacies and you can probably think of a few right off the top of your head right now. Either way we are going to tell you some of the immediate problems with trying to medication off the Internet.

Online pharmacies are websites that sell prescription and over-the-counter drugs that may or may not be safe to use and could put your health at risk. The best ways to avoid the dangers of online pharmacies are to be able to recognize legal internet pharmacies and how to buy medicines online safely.

Buying prescription and over-the-counter drugs online from a company you don’t know means you also don’t know what you will be getting. There are multiple online pharmacies that operate legally and they offer conveniences, privacy and safeguards for buying medicines. But there also tons of “shady websites” that offer to sell potentially dangerous medicines that have not been checked for safety or effectiveness. These “rogue websites” will look professional and they will also look legitimate, all the while they are an illegal operating online pharmacy. Dangerous online pharmacies will most often sell unapproved medicines or medicines that contain the wrong active ingredients. Some of the other dangers of online pharmacies are that they will also sell drugs that contain too little or too much of the active ingredient too.

Many people who buy from illegitimate online pharmacies instead of receiving the drug they ordered, they received products containing what was identified as foreign versions of their drug. As a result these people had to seek medical treatment for their symptoms which could have ended up deadly.

One of the biggest dangers of online pharmacies is that the websites will sell counterfeit drugs that look exactly like the real FDA-approved medicines but the quality and safety of the drugs are totally unknown.

Here are some of the ways to avoid the dangers of online pharmacies:

  • If the online pharmacy is located in the United States
  • It is a licensed online pharmacy by the state board of pharmacy where the website is operating. You can find the list of boards on the Internet by searching for the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy.
  • It has a licensed pharmacist available to answer your questions
  • It requires a prescription for prescription medications from your doctor or another health care profession who is licensed to prescribe medicines.
  • It provides contact information and allows you to talk to a person if you have problems or questions.

Here are some of the ways to spot a dangerous online pharmacy:

  • It sends you drugs with unknown quality and/or origin
  • It gives you the wrong drug or another dangerous product for your illness
  • It doesn’t provide any way to contact the website by phone
  • It may offer to sell prescription drugs without a prescription-this is illegal
  • It may or may not protect your personal information
  • It offers prices significantly cheaper than the competition

The dangers of online pharmacies all lie in the fact that the drugs could be counterfeit or contaminated. This is why you should know your medicines before buying from an online pharmacy. Counterfeit drugs can be contaminated, lead to dangerous side effects, contain the wrong active ingredient, be made with the wrong amounts of ingredients, or contain no active ingredient or not enough of it. All of this can be very dangerous to you who need the medicine. These are the problems and dangers of online pharmacies.

5 Stupid Things You Might Do On Roxies

5 Stupid Things You Might Do On Roxies

I’ve done a lot of stupid things on roxies. Roxies kind of made me feel invincible, and I never realized how high I actually was. I thought I was fooling everyone around me, but in the end I was just fooling myself. Here are the top 5 stupid things I did on roxies.

5 Stupid Things You Might Do On Roxies: Burn yourself

Anyone who smokes cigarettes while doing roxies has probably burned themselves at some point. Towards the end of my run, I didn’t own any clothes without burn marks on them. I’d get high, light a cigarette, and nod out. The burning of my skin would rouse me slightly, but since I was on painkillers, it would sometimes take a minute before I really felt the burn. I’d wake slightly, take a drag, and nod back out. This cycle would repeat itself over and over.

5 Stupid Things You Might Do On Roxies: Nod out in public

When I was on roxies, I always believed that I was completely fooling everyone around me. I’d go on with my normal life, and not even realize that it was totally apparent that I was high. I nodded out at my desk at work, at family functions, and during class. It wasn’t until I got clean that I realized that I wasn’t fooling anyone.

5 Stupid Things You Might Do On Roxies: Drive High

I always thought I was good to drive when I was on roxies. Even when I could barely keep my eyes open, I’d get behind the wheel. This was a really stupid thing to do on roxies. My reaction time was so much slower than a normal person. I ended up getting in two major accidents within three months, and only by the grace of God did I avoid a DUI charge.

5 Stupid Things You Might Do On Roxies: Call the cops

I When I was home for Christmas, my sisters reminded me of something that happened while I was still using. My roxies were prescribed by pill mill doctors, so I had prescriptions for them. One day, my worried mom took my prescription bottles, and I freaked out. I didn’t care that she loved me and wanted the best for me. I didn’t care that she was the only one who had put up with me for so long; that she had provided me a place to live, food and a car when my addiction got bad. All I cared about was getting the drugs back. I called the cops on my mom, and they came and made her give me back the prescription bottles.

5 Stupid Things You Might Do On Roxies: Drink

For me, drinking while I was on roxies was one of the stupidest things I could do. It meant instant blackout. The next morning, I would wake up with heaviness in the pit of my stomach, trying to remember what the hell had happened the night before. Not to mention that drinking while I was on roxies was a really great way to overdose, not that I ever really considered that while I was using.